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Hybrid working for all

Many companies are now (finally!) moving from virtual-first to hybrid working, with a mix of in-person and virtual options for getting work done together. This trend means people will likely have more choice than ever before in how and where they work—good news for people’s well-being, working across geographical boundaries, and for the bottom line. But a hybrid model presents new challenges. For one, it’s logistically difficult to bring together those who are present in person with those who remain virtual, and the result may be inequities in the experiences of these two groups. Yet efforts to make things fair—for example, conducting meetings over Zoom even when some people are physically present in the office together—may interfere with the very benefits of being together in person. At the same time, those who remain virtual will still miss out on certain activities, such as impromptu chats in the hallway or after-work drinks.

This has led us to wonder, what we can understand about who is more likely to return to in person versus remaining virtual, and how might they be affected by the resulting disparate experiences? As leaders, how can we ensure that those who remain virtual will be included in meaningful ways without inhibiting opportunities to connect for those who are present in person? And how should individuals who have the freedom to choose to weigh up the options and trade-offs of face time versus screen time?

Lots of questions, I know, but rest assured we do have some insight into the matter. Our Business Chemistry latest study of more than 8,000 professionals from hundreds of different organisations across the globe suggests that most people want a mix of working virtually and in person; just over 10% say they want to work almost exclusively virtually, and just under 10% almost exclusively in person. The rest are in the middle, with 22% saying they prefer a bit more in-person time, 23% a bit more virtual time, and 35% half and half.1

Not surprisingly introverts (that’s Guardians, Dreamers, and Scientists) prefer working virtually, while extroverts (that’s Pioneers, Commanders, and Teamers) prefer working in person.

While we might have expected that, the predictability of the pattern doesn’t make the implications of it any less impactful. If people are given the choice about where they work from, extroverts will spend more time in the office and attending meetings and events in person than introverts will. Why does that matter? Because introverts already tend to experience more challenges than extroverts when it comes to contributing in group settings and tend to feel less psychologically safe than extroverts.

Furthermore, a study we conducted, based on a sample of more than 14,000 professionals, suggests that introverts, more than extroverts, feel discouraged from contributing in a group setting when:

  • People aren’t listening to each other (56% of introverts would be discouraged versus 48% of extroverts)
  • Lots of people are talking at once (48% vs. 39%)
  • They aren’t prepared for the discussion (33% vs. 22%)
  • They’re not sure their input is welcome (23% vs. 15%)
  • They don’t feel a sense of belonging (21% vs. 17%)2

The “extrovert ideal,” which is prevalent in many Western business settings, means introverts may already be viewed less favourably than extroverts. The concern is that this effect may be exacerbated in hybrid working models if introverts don’t return to the office at the same rate as extroverts. Introverts may now feel even less accepted and less safe, and may contribute less often even than before.

Imagine a hybrid meeting with several people together in the office and several others zooming in from home. Those in the office are thrilled to be together and their energy is high. They are also, not coincidentally, quite extroverted, while the people zooming in from home are more introverted. The office extroverts have lots of opinions and ideas and they’re eager to share them. The zooming-in introverts have opinions and ideas, too, but they’re having a hard time following what’s happening. They can’t quite hear everything because the office speaker phone isn’t up to the job. And while they can see the conference room, the individual people are hard to make out. The office camera is aimed toward the whiteboard in the room, but it’s impossible to read. The office extroverts are talkative and lively. They’re riffing off each other’s ideas, interrupting, and feeding off one another’s energy. The zooming-in introverts are feeling a little left out and aren’t sure how to break into a discussion when there’s never a pause. Occasionally one attempts to speak or uses the zoom raise your hand feature, but no one notices. It feels like no one cares about their contribution and eventually they pretty much give up.

If remaining virtual means introverts have more challenges contributing, the impact could be negative for everyone, because diversity of thought makes for better decision-making and more creative problem-solving. We all benefit when introverts contribute. Moreover, extroverts, too, want a mixture of in-person and virtual work, and making a hybrid model effective is important for keeping those options open.

So, what do you do? It may seem a daunting knot to unravel, but it’s not impossible. Prior to the pandemic, many leaders thought virtual-first working models couldn’t be effective, but their people proved them wrong, and hybrid models can work too. Our findings provide important clues for what levers to pull to make hybrid work for everyone.

  • Get the technology right, so that those who attend virtually and those who are in person can clearly see and hear each other.
  • Don’t assume that a hybrid event is better than a virtual one; we’ve found it often isn’t.
  • Focus on building trust and psychological safety for everyone. One path to doing so is getting to know each other more personally, which can also help with creating a sense of belonging. When there are opportunities to gather in person, take advantage of them by making personal connections an explicit focus.
  • Communicate when the goal of a gathering is connection. This may entice more people to come together in person, as our research suggests that even introverts prefer working in person for the purpose of connecting with others.
  • Plan ahead and share information in advance, so that everyone has an opportunity to prepare for discussions and come ready to contribute, whether they’re attending in person or virtually.
  • Make it clear that everyone’s input is welcome, and explicitly build in opportunities for those who aren’t physically present to contribute, taking turns between virtual and in-person participants, or offering asynchronous options for participation. Consider explicit roles for virtual participants to play that require others to regularly seek their input and engagement.
  • If possible, pair individual virtual participants with in-person participants who can assist and be their eyes and ears in the room.
  • Clearly define expectations about whether and when people should be present in person and any implications for individuals of remaining virtual when others return.

You as an individual can also:

  • Request clear guidelines about what is expected regarding virtual and in-person work and what the implications may be for choosing one over the other.
  • Consider how your well-being may be affected by the choices you make. In general, introverts considering their well-being indicate even stronger preferences for virtual work over in-person work. The pattern is similar, although not quite as strong, for extroverts.
  • Balance considerations about your well-being with needs for connection (your own and those of your colleagues) and the need to work efficiently together.
  • Ask for what you need to contribute effectively while working virtually (e.g., opportunities to prepare in advance), and also to make attending in person less stressful.
  • Be an active participant in shaping how those who attend events and gatherings virtually will be meaningfully engaged.



1 During the period of July 2021 through November 2021, all respondents who completed the online Business Chemistry assessment were asked about their preferences for virtual versus in-person work. More than 8,000 professionals from hundreds of organizations responded. Findings from this study are previously unpublished.

2 During the period of September 2020 through June 2021, all respondents who completed the online Business Chemistry assessment were asked about the conditions that would discourage them from contributing in a group setting. More than 14,000 professionals from hundreds of organizations responded. Findings from this study are previously unpublished.